Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome is a disorder in which the person’s sleep-wake cycle (internal clock) is delayed by 2 or more hours. Having DSPS, can cause significant problems, as they are unable to get up for school or work. Symptoms include daytime sleepiness, inability to fall asleep at the desired time, inability to wake up at the desired time, other daytime symptoms.
Insomnia is a persistent disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep or both, despite the opportunity for adequate sleep. With insomnia, you usually awaken feeling unrefreshed, which takes a toll on your ability to function during the day. Insomnia can sap not only your energy level and mood but also your health, work performance and quality of life. Insomnia symptoms may include: difficulty falling asleep at night, awakening during the night, awakening too early, not feeling well rested after a night’s sleep, daytime tiredness or sleepiness, irritability, depression or anxiety, difficulty paying attention, focusing on tasks or remembering, increased errors or accidents, tension headaches, distress in the stomach and intestines (gastrointestinal tract) and ongoing worries about sleep.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when your throat muscles intermittently relax and block your airway during sleep. The most noticeable sign of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring. Signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea include: excessive daytime sleepiness; loud snoring; observed episodes of breathing cessation during sleep; abrupt awakenings accompanied by shortness of breath; awakening with a dry mouth or sore throat; awakening with chest pain; morning headache; difficulty concentrating during the day; experiencing mood changes, such as depression or irritability; difficulty staying asleep; having high blood pressure.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Mayo Clinic (Mar. 6, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obstructive-sleep-apnea/symptoms-causes/syc-20352090
Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)
Restless legs syndrome (“RLS”), also called Willis-Ekbom Disease, causes unpleasant or uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an irresistible urge to move them. Since symptoms can increase in severity during the night, it could become difficult to fall asleep or return to sleep after waking up. RLS is classified as a sleep disorder since the symptoms are triggered by resting and attempting to sleep, and as a movement disorder, since people are forced to move their legs in order to relieve symptoms. It is, however, best characterized as a neurological sensory disorder with symptoms that are produced from within the brain itself. RLS is one of several disorders that can cause exhaustion and daytime sleepiness, which can strongly affect mood, concentration, job and school performance, and personal relationships. Many people with RLS report they are often unable to concentrate, have impaired memory, or fail to accomplish daily tasks. Untreated moderate to severe RLS can lead to about a 20 percent decrease in work productivity and can contribute to depression and anxiety.
Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Restless-Legs-Syndrome-Fact-Sheet
Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which you have one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths while you sleep. Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds to minutes. They may occur 30 times or more an hour. Typically, normal breathing then starts again, sometimes with a loud snort or choking sound. Sleep apnea usually is a chronic (ongoing) condition that disrupts your sleep. When your breathing pauses or becomes shallow, you’ll often move out of deep sleep and into light sleep. As a result, the quality of your sleep is poor, which makes you tired during the day. Sleep apnea is a leading cause of excessive daytime sleepiness.
Sleep Apnea, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/sleep-apnea