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Nervous System

Anoxic Brain Injury

Anoxic brain injuries are caused by a complete lack of oxygen being provided to the brain, which results in the death of brain cells after approximately four minutes of oxygen deprivation.

Anoxic brain injuries often cause an initial loss of consciousness, which can be short-term or long-term depending on severity and length of oxygen deprivation. Initial loss of consciousness may result in a comatose state. Other symptoms of an occurring anoxic brain injury may include slurring and difficulties with speech, confusion and disorientation or facial drooping.

Upon regaining consciousness, the effects and symptoms are often similar to that of a traumatic brain injury, depending on severity of the injury. More severe anoxic brain injuries may leave the patient in a vegetative state.

Anoxic and Hypoxic Brain Injury, Shepherd Center, https://www.shepherd.org/patient-programs/brain-injury/about/types-of-brain-injury/anoxic-hypoxic-brain-injury

Arachnoid Cysts

Arachnoid Cysts are fluid-filled sacs that occur on the arachnoid membrane that covers the brain (intracranial) and the spinal cord (spinal).  Headaches, seizures and abnormal accumulation of excessive cerebrospinal fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus) are common.

Brain Lesions (Cavernous Hemangiomas)

Brain lesions are abnormalities seen on imaging tests such as MRIs or CT scans that appear as dark or light spots separate from normal brain tissue. These can be caused by a brain aneurysm, tumor, encephalitis, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or traumatic brain injury.

Brain Lesions. May Clinic, https://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/brain-lesions/basics/when-to-see-doctor/sym-20050692.

Brain Tumors in Adults, WebMD, https://www.webmd.com/cancer/brain-cancer/brain-tumors-in-adults#2

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition that causes numbness, tingling and other symptoms in the hand and arm. Carpal tunnel syndrome is caused by a compressed nerve in the carpal tunnel, a narrow passageway on the palm side of your wrist. The anatomy of your wrist, health problems and possibly repetitive hand motions can contribute to carpal tunnel syndrome.

Symptoms include tingling or numbness and weakness and gradually worsen as time goes on.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/carpal-tunnel-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20355603

Cervical Dystonia (Spasmodic Torticollis)

Cervical dystonia, also called spasmodic torticollis, is a painful condition in which the neck muscles contract involuntarily, causing your head to twist or turn to one side or tilt forward or backward.

Symptoms include muscle contractions forcing the chin towards the shoulder, straight up, or straight down, or the ear towards the shoulder. The most common type is when the chin is pulled towards the shoulder. Some people will experience a combination of these abnormal head gestures. Those with cervical dystonia will experience neck pain that can radiate into the shoulders as well as chronic headaches. This pain can be exhausting and disabling.

Cervical Dystonia. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cervical-dystonia/symptoms-causes/syc-20354123

Charcot Neuroarthropathy (Charcot Foot/Ankle)

Charcot Neuroarthropathy, also known as Charcot foot and ankle, is a syndrome in patients who have neuropathy. It includes fractures and dislocations of bones and joints that occur with minimal or no known trauma.  Initially, there may be swelling, redness and increased warmth of the foot and ankle. Later, when fractures and dislocations occur, there may be severe deformities of the foot and ankle, including collapse of the mid-foot arch (often called rocker bottom foot) or instability of the ankle and hind-foot. The syndrome progresses through three general stages:

  • Stage 1 (acute, development-fragmentation): marked redness, swelling, warmth; early radiographs show soft tissue swelling, and bony fragmentation and joint dislocation may be noted several weeks after onset;
  • Stage 2 (subacute, coalescence): decreased redness, swelling and warmth; radiographs show early bony healing;
  • Stage 3 (chronic, reconstruction-consolidation): redness, swelling, warmth resolved; bony healing or nonunion and residual deformity are frequently present.

Charcot foot occurs in patients with peripheral neuropathy resulting from diverse conditions including diabetes mellitus.  Repetitive micro trauma that exceeds the rate of healing may cause fractures and dislocations. Changes in circulation may cause resorption of bone , weakening the bone and increasing susceptibility to fracture and dislocation.

Cisplatin Toxicity (Chemo Brain)

Chemo brain is a common term used by cancer survivors to describe thinking and memory problems that can occur after cancer treatment. These memory problems can be a frustrating and debilitating side effect of cancer and its treatment. The causes are not always associated with a chemo treatment and may be due to certain cancers producing chemicals that affect memory as well as the stress associated with a cancer diagnosis.

Symptoms include being unusually disorganized, confusion, fatigue, short attention span, trouble with verbal and visual memory, and difficulties in concentrating, finding the right word, learning new skills, and multitasking.

Chemo Brain. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chemo-brain/symptoms-causes/syc-20351060.

Cognitive Impairment

Cognitive impairment occurs when problems with thought processes occur. It can include loss of higher reasoning, forgetfulness, learning disabilities, concentration difficulties, decreased intelligence, and other reductions in mental functions.

Cognitive impairment can be the result of several causes such as genetic syndromes, malnutrition, prenatal drug exposure, hypoglycemia, trauma or child abuse, and oxygen deprivation in the womb during or after birth among other reasons.

Cognitive Impairment. Healthgrades.

Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy is a general term used to encompass brain disease, damage, or malfunction is often presented with altered mental states. Causes include but are not limited to infections, toxin exposure, trauma, alcoholic cirrhosis, kidney failure, and/or anoxia.

Davis, Charles P, MD, PhD., Stoppler, Melissa C, MD. Encephalopathy. Medicine Net. https://www.medicinenet.com/encephalopathy/article.htm#encephalopathy_facts

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a central nervous system disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness.

Seizure symptoms can vary widely ranging from a few seconds of staring blankly to repeated twitching of arms and legs but are almost always associated with loss of consciousness or awareness and temporary confusion. Focal seizures result from abnormal activity in one area of the brain. Generalized seizures appear when abnormal activity appears in the whole brain.

i.        Complex Partial Seizures:

Affect a larger area of the brain than a simple partial seizure and they affect consciousness. During these seizures, a person cannot interact normally with other people, is not in control of his or her movements, speech or actions, does not know what he or she is doing, and cannot remember afterwards what happened during the seizure. These are often accompanied by movements called automatisms which include chewing movements of the mouth, picking at clothes, or fumbling.

ii.        Temporal Lobe Epilepsy:

Type of seizure occurring in one of two temporal lobes. Complex partial seizures are the most common type of seizure in temporal lobe epilepsy. These seizures may be associated with a mixture of different feelings, emotions, thoughts, and experiences. Hallucinations may occur.

iii.        Grand Mal Seizures (Tonic-clonic seizures):

This is a seizure involving the entire body. It usually consists of muscle rigidity followed by violent muscle contractions and loss of alertness. Symptoms may include biting the cheek or tongue, clenched jaw, loss of urine or stool control, difficulty breathing, etc.

Epilepsy. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epilepsy/symptoms-causes/syc-20350093?mc_id=bing&campaign=141805378&geo=93546&kw=Epilepsy&query=epilepsy&ad=80676678745556&network=Search&sitetarget=o&adgroup=4634137820&extension=&target=&matchtype=e&device=c&account=B013932Y&invsrc=neuro&placementsite=enterprise&msclkid=4ac3a9e9589817dfeea0f2e4d7351de5

Fiber Neuropathy

Fiber neuropathy is a condition characterized by severe pain attacks that typically begin in the feet or hands. Those diagnosed with fiber neuropathy are unable to feel pain that is concentrated in a very small area, such as a pin prick, but do have an increased sensitivity to pain in general and experience pain from stimulation that typically would not cause pain. There may also be a reduced ability to differentiate between hot and cold, but these temperature changes may trigger pain attacks.

Some affected individuals may have urinary or bowel problems, episodes of rapid heartbeat, dry eyes or mouth, abnormal sweating, or a sharp drop in blood pressure.

Small Fiber Neuropathy. U.S. National Library of Medicine. https://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/small-fiber-neuropathy

Front Intermittent Rhythmic Delta Activity (FIRDA)

Frontal Intermittent Rhythmic Delta Activity (FIRDA) is a type of brain wave abnormality found in EEG located in the frontal portion of the brain. FIRDA is commonly associated with lesions, tumors, and encephalopathies among other reasons. FIRDA is a rather nonspecific EEG patter in comparison to its counterparts located in the occipital and temporal lobes.

Brigo, Francesco. Intermittent Rhythmic Delta Activity Patterns. ScienceDirect. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1525505010007262

Headaches

i.        Cervicogenic Headaches

A cervicogenic headache starts in the cervical spine—the neck. Sometimes these headaches mimic migraine headache symptoms. Initially, pain may begin intermittently, spread to one side (unilateral) of the patient’s head, and become almost continuous. Furthermore, pain can be exacerbated by neck movement or a particular neck position (e.g., eyes focused on a computer monitor).

The cause of a cervicogenic headache is often related to excessive stress to the neck. The headache may result from cervical osteoarthritis, a damaged disc, or whiplash-type movement that irritates or compresses a cervical nerve. The neck’s bony structures (eg, facet joints) and its soft tissues (eg, muscles) can contribute to the development of a cervicogenic headache. Certain spinal nerves structures are involved in many cervicogenic headaches. Spinal nerves are signal transmitters that enable communication between the brain and the body via the spinal cord. At each level of the cervical spine is a set of spinal nerves; one on the left side and one on the right of the spine. C1, C2 and/or C3 may be involved in development of cervicogenic headaches because these nerves enable function (movement) and sensation of the head and neck. Nerve compression can cause inflammation and pain.

A cervicogenic headache presents as a steady, non-throbbing pain at the back and base of the skull, sometimes extending downward into the neck and between the shoulder blades. Pain may be felt behind the brow and forehead, even though the problem originates from the cervical spine. Pain usually begins after a sudden neck movement, such as a sneeze. Along with head and/or neck pain, symptoms may include: stiff neck, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, sensitivity to light or sound, pain in one or both arms.

Gerard Malanga, M.D., Cervicogenic Headaches Start in the Neck, Spine Universe (updated Apr. 24, 2018), https://www.spineuniverse.com/conditions/neck-pain/cervicogenic-headaches-start-neck

ii.        Chronic Daily Headache Syndrome

Chronic Daily Headache Syndrome refers to headaches that are present most dates, often for most of the day. Typically, it has the following features: constant “pressing” or “bursting” sensation and pounding; occurs all over the head or sometimes in one small area; is often variable but tends to get worse as the day goes on; and conventional painkillers only “take the edge” off the pain.  As Neurosymptoms.org describes these headaches, “it is hard for others to understand how a headache can be so bad without any obvious cause,” and “the name often doesn’t do justice to the severity of the pain.”  Often, other symptoms accompany the headaches.  These symptoms include: fatigue, back or neck pain, poor concentration, sleep disturbance, word finding difficulty, blurred vision, nausea, avoidance of bright light, frustration and anger, low mood, lack of enjoyment, and worry.

Functional & Dissociative Neurological Symptoms: A Patient’s Guide, Neurosymptoms, http://www.neurosymptoms.org/dissociative-symptoms/4533053148

iii.        Chronic Headaches

Chronic Headaches occur 15 days or more a month, for at least three months. Chronic daily headaches are generally not caused by another condition.  The incessant nature of chronic daily headaches makes them among the most disabling headaches. Aggressive initial treatment and steady, long-term management may reduce pain and lead to fewer headaches.

Chronic Daily Headaches, Mayo Clinic (Feb. 14, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-daily-headaches/symptoms-causes/syc-20370891

iv.        Migraines

Migraines can be described as a collection of symptoms that appear to affect not only the head but various parts of the body such as limbs, gastric tract disturbances, and in some people neurological disturbances. Migraines are headaches that can cause intense throbbing or pulsing in one area of the head and is commonly accompanies by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound.

Migraines, Mayo Clinic (Apr. 26, 2017), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/migraine-headache/symptoms-causes/syc-20360201.

v.        Ocular Migraine Headaches

Ocular Migraine Headaches cause vision loss or blindness in one eye that lasts less than an hour. One can have them along with or after a migraine headache. Experts sometimes call them visual, retinal, ophthalmic, or monocular (meaning one eye) migraines.  This problem is rare. It affects about 1 out of every 200 people who have migraines. Some research suggests that in many cases, the symptoms are due to other problems.  Regular migraines can also cause vision problems, called an aura, which can involve flashing lights and blind spots in the vision. But these symptoms usually appear in both eyes.

Warning signs of an ocular migraine include vision problems that affect one eye, such as flashing lights, blind spots in the field of vision, or blindness. One might have them for only a few minutes or up to 30 minutes. These problems affect just one eye, which makes ocular migraines different from other types.

It’s rare, but people who have theses migraines have a higher risk of permanent vision loss in one eye.

Ocular Migraine, WebMD (Apr. 3, 2018), https://www.webmd.com/migraines-headaches/ocular-migraine-basics#2

vi.        Cluster Migraines

Cluster Migraines occur in cyclical patterns or clusters, which gives the condition its name. Cluster headache is one of the most painful types of headache. Bouts of frequent attacks, known as cluster periods, may last from weeks to months.

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cluster-headache/basics/definition/con-20031706?p=1

Hemiparesis

Hemiparesis is weakness on one side of the body, commonly experienced after a stroke. One-sided weakness may cause problems with breathing and can affect the arms, hands, legs, and facial muscles. One my experience loss of balance, difficulty walking, eating, dressing, and/or using the bathroom, muscle fatigue, and lack of coordination.

www.stroke.org

Hepatic Encephalopathy

Hepatic Encephalopathy is a decline in brain function as a result of severe liver disease. In this condition the liver cannot adequately remove toxins from the blood. This causes a buildup of toxins in the blood stream, which can lead to brain damage. Acute hepatic encephalopathy develops because of severe liver disease or terminal liver failure.

Hepatic Encephalopathy. Health Line. https://www.healthline.com/health/hepatic-encephalopathy-2

Intracranial Hemorrhage

An intracranial hemorrhage is a collection of blood within the skull, most commonly caused by rupture of a blood vessel within the brain or from trauma such as a car accident or fall. The blood collection can be within the brain tissue or underneath the skull putting pressure on the brain.

Symptoms include increasing headaches, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, unequal pupil size, and slurred speech. As more blood fills the brain or the space in between the brain and the skull one might appear lethargic, have seizures, or lose consciousness.

 

Intracranial Hematoma. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/intracranial-hematoma/symptoms-causes/syc-20356145

 

Lumbosacral Neuritis

Lumbosacral neuritis is a condition in which the nerves located around the lumbar and sacrum become inflamed. This can occur from infection, inflammation, compression due to a small bone spur or tumor, and sometimes diabetes. A herniated disc is a very common reason for diagnosis.

Symptoms include low back pain and shooting pains down the leg. There may be associated weakness of muscles along with some alteration in the sensation of the skin on the leg.

Lumbosacral Neuritis: symptoms, causes and treatments. Health and Living Magazine. http://www.healthandlivingmag.com/Lumbosacral_neuritis_symptoms_causes_and_treatments/

Lumbosacral Plexopathy

Lumbosacral plexopathy is a peripheral nerve problem that results from an injury to the lumbar or sacral plexuses located in the lower part of the vertebral column. The injury can result from diabetes, tumor, radiation, and obstetrical injury.

Symptoms include pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or hypersensitivity and can depend on the underlying cause of the injury.

Lumbosacral Plexopathy. Vermont Spineworks & Rehabilitation. http://www.vermontspineworks.com/services/nerve-function-testing/lumbosacral-plexopathy

Mitochondrial Myopathy

Mitochondrial myopathies are a group of neuromuscular diseases caused by damage to the mitochondria—small, energy-producing structures that serve as the cells’ “power plants.” Nerve cells in the brain and muscles require a great deal of energy, and thus appear to be particularly damaged when mitochondrial dysfunction occurs

Symptoms include muscle weakness, heart failure, dementia, blindness, droopy eyelids, etc.

Mitochondrial Disease. MedicineNet. https://www.medicinenet.com/mitochondrial_disease/article.htm#what_is_the_prognosis_for_mitochondrial_disease

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (“MS”) is referred to as an immune-mediated disease which affects the Central Nervous System (“CNS”). While certain specialists believe MS is an autoimmune disease, other specialists disagree, because it is unknown which specific part of the immune system is being attacked by the disease.

Symptoms of MS can range from mild to severe, and can include numbness and tingling in the limbs, and even paralysis and loss of vision. When a patient has MS, the myelin – the fatty sheath protecting the nerve fibers in the CNS – is damaged. This damages myelin is called “sclerosis.” Myelins surrounding several different nerves are affected, thus the name Multiple Sclerosis.

There are four different courses of Multiple Sclerosis: Relapsing-Remitting MS, Primary-Progressive MS, Secondary-Progressive MS, and Progressive-Relapsing MS. The most common symptoms of MS include: fatigue, numbness, gait and balance problems, vision problems, vertigo, pain, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. There are, however, several less common symptoms, and you should make sure you cover all symptoms with your physician.

https://www.webmd.com/multiple-sclerosis/multiple-sclerosis-understanding-the-differences-in-ms#1

Neuralgia

Neuralgia is a stabbing, burning, and often severe pain due to an irritated or damaged nerve. The nerve may be anywhere in the body, and the damage may be caused by several things including aging, diseases like diabetes, or an infection like shingles.

i.        Occipital Neuralgia

Occipital neuralgia is a result of the irritation of one of the occipital nerves located at the back of the head. This irritation can happen spontaneously, as the result of a pinched nerve root in the neck, or prior injury or surgery to the scalp or skull.

Symptoms include shooting, zapping, electric, or tingling pain on one side of the scalp. Sometimes the pain can also seem to radiate toward one eye and the scalp may become extremely sensitive even to the slightest touch or completely numb.

ii.        Trigeminal Neuralgia

This type of neuralgia is associated with pain from the trigeminal nerve, which travels from the brain and branches to different parts of the face. The pain can be caused by a blood vessel pressing down on the nerve where it meets with the brainstem. It can also be caused by multiple sclerosis, injury to the nerve, or other causes. Trigeminal neuralgia causes severe, recurrent pain in the face, usually on one side.

Neuralgia. Health Line. https://www.healthline.com/health/neuralgia#types

Paresthesia

Paresthesia is a sensation, usually felt on the skin, often described as numbness, tingling, pins and needles, or prickling. It is commonly referred to as a limb “falling asleep”. Chronic paresthesia may result from poor circulation, nerve irritation, or neuropathy among other causes. Transient paresthesia may be a symptom of hyperventilation syndrome or a panic attack.

Paresthesia. Paresthesia. http://www.paresthesia.net/

Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s Disease (“PD”) is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. It develops gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Symptoms include tremors, slowed movement, rigid muscles, impaired posture and balance, loss of automatic movements, speech changes, and writing changes.

In PD, certain nerve cells in the brain gradually break down or die. Many of the symptoms are due to a loss of neurons that produce a chemical messenger in your brain called dopamine. When dopamine levels decrease, it causes abnormal brain activity.

Although PD can’t be cured, medications may markedly improve your symptoms. In occasional cases, your doctor may suggest surgery to regulate certain regions of your brain and improve your symptoms.

Parkinson’s Disease, Mayo Clinic (July 7, 2015), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/parkinsons-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20376055.

Polyneuropathy (Peripheral Neuropathy)

Polyneuropathy is when multiple peripheral nerves become damaged, which is also commonly called peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral nerves are nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord. They relay information between the central nervous system (CNS), and all other parts of the body. The brain and spinal cord are part of the CNS.

Polyneuropathy affects several nerves in different parts of the body at the same time. In cases of mononeuropathy, just one nerve is affected. Polyneuropathy can affect nerves responsible for feeling (sensory neuropathy), movement (motor neuropathy), or both (sensorimotor neuropathy). It may also affect the autonomic nerves responsible for controlling functions such as digestion, the bladder, blood pressure, and heart rate.

A variety of medical conditions and other factors can cause polyneuropathy, including: diabetes, alcohol abuse, autoimmune conditions, bacterial or viral infections, bone marrow disorders, exposure to toxins, hereditary disorders, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, liver disease, medications, poor nutrition, and physical trauma or injury.

Jayne Leonard, What’s to Know About Plyneuropathy?, Medical News Today (updated Apr. 29, 2017), https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317212.php

Post-Concussion Syndrome

Post-concussion syndrome is a complex disorder in which various symptoms – such as headaches and dizziness – last for weeks and sometimes months after the injury that caused the concussion. In most people, symptoms occur within the first seven to ten days and go within three months but can persist for a year or more.

Symptoms include headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, loss of concentration and memory, ringing in the ears, blurry vision, nose and light sensitivity, and, although rarely, decreases in taste and smell.

Post-concussion Syndrome. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/post-concussion-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20353352

Radial Nerve Palsy

Radial Nerve Palsy is damage to the radial nerve located at the back of the upper arm that leads to problems with movement or sensation of the back of the arm, forearm, or hand. The radial nerve travels down the arm and controls movement of the triceps muscle at the back of the upper arm. It also controls the ability to bend the wrist backward and helps with the movement and sensation of the wrist and hand.

Injury of Radial Nerve. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/radial-nerve-dysfunction

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) / Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a condition that features a group of typical symptoms including pain, tenderness, and swelling of an extremity associated with varying degrees of sweating, warmth and/or coolness, flushing, discoloration, and shiny skin. RSD is also referred to as “complex regional pain syndrome”, “the shoulder-hand syndrome”, “causalgia”, and “Sudeck’s atrophy”. RSD can be caused by a number of events including, but not limited to, injury, herat disease, stroke, carpal tunnel syndrome, shingles, and breast cancer.

Symptoms vary by the stage at which one is in. Acute RSD includes burning, flushing, blanching, sweating, swelling, pain, and tenderness. An x-ray may show changes of patchy bone thinning in this stage. Dystrophic RSD includes early skin changes of shiny, thickened skin and contracture with persistent pain, but diminished swelling and flushing. Atrophic RSD may include loss of motion and functioning of the involved hand or foot and thinning of the fatty layers under the skin. An x-ray can show significant osteoporosis.

Shiel, Willam C., MD, FACP, FACR. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD, Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1, CRPS). Medicine Net. https://www.medicinenet.com/reflex_sympathetic_dystrophy_syndrome/article.htm#what_is_reflex_sympathetic_dystrophy_rsd.

Stroke

A stroke occurs when blood flow to an area of the brain is cut off and brain cells are deprived of oxygen. A stroke can cause loss of speech, movement, and memory, both permanently and temporarily. Signs of an occurring stroke include sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm or leg, sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or understanding, sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes, sudden trouble walking or dizziness, sudden severe headache with no known case. There are two different types of strokes that may occur:

i.        Ischemic Stroke

Ischemic stroke occurs when a blood vessel carrying blood to the brain is blocked by a blood clot. High blood pressure is the most important risk factor for this kind of stroke. An embolic stroke occurs when a blood clot or plaque fragment forms somewhere in the body and travels to the brain. Once in the brain the clot travels to a vessel small enough to block its passage. The clot lodges there, blocking the blood vessel. A thrombotic stroke is caused by a blood clot that forms inside one of the arteries supplying blood to the brain. This is often seen in people with high cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis.

Ischemic Stroke. National Stroke Association. http://www.stroke.org/understand-stroke/what-stroke/ischemic-stroke

ii.        Hemmorrhagic Stroke

Hemorrhagic strokes are less common that ischemic strokes. They occur when a brain aneurysm bursts or a weakened blood vessel leaks. Blood spills into or around the brain creating swelling and pressure, damaging cells and tissue. Intracerebral hemorrhages occur when a blood vessel inside the brain bursts. Subarachnoid hemorrhages involve bleeding in the area between the brain and the tissue covering the brain and are often caused by burst aneurysms.

Hemorrhagic Stroke. National Stroke Association. http://www.stroke.org/understand-stroke/what-stroke/hemorrhagic-stroke

Understand Stroke. National Stroke Association. http://www.stroke.org/understand-stroke

Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injuries are complex medical conditions with several symptoms and disabilities. Traumatic brain injuries are the result of a violent blow to the head, striking the head on an object, or something penetrating the skull.

Cognitive problems stemming from traumatic brain injuries can damage every aspect of a person’s life. Problems with short-term and long-term memory, language, and concentration are all cognitive components affected by traumatic brain injury. Physical symptoms can include headaches, dizziness, vision problems, nausea or vomiting, sleep dysfunction, and sensory problems. All of these symptoms make it extremely difficult for victims of traumatic brain injuries to function in the workplace

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