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Immune System / Lymphatic System

Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD)

Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is a multifactorial disorder in which pituitary dysfunction associated with pituitary adenomas or their treatment plays a major role. Adults with GHD can have a variety of signs and symptoms, which include abnormality body composition with increased fat mass (especially central adiposity), decreased lean muscle mass, extracellular fluid volume, diminished muscle strength, physical energy and stamina, lack of motivation, lethargy, lability (changes in mood), depression, and impairment of cognitive functions.

Signs and Symptoms of Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency. Human Growth Foundation. http://hgfound.org/resources/adult-growth-hormone-deficiency/signs-and-symptoms-of-adult-growth-hormone-deficiency/

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid Syndrome occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks some of the normal proteins in your blood. Antiphospholipid syndrome can cause blood clots to form within your arteries or veins.  There’s no cure for Antiphospholipid Syndrome, but medications can be effective in reducing your risk of blood clots.

www.mayoclinic.org

Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS)

Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS) is an acute and chronic, systemic inflammatory response syndrome acquired following exposure to toxigenic organisms (fungi, bacteria, etc.) as well as endotoxins, beta glucans, hemolysins, proteinases, etc. CIRS involves a systemic inflammatory response that results when an individual does not have the immune system fails to regulate inflammation.

Symptoms include fatigue, weakness, aches, muscle cramps, unusual pain, ice pick pain, headache, light sensitivity, red eyes, etc.

CIRS – Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome. Custom Medicine. https://custommedicine.com.au/health-articles/cirs-chronic-inflammatory-response-syndrome/

Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)

CVID is an immune system disorder in which a person has low levels of several of the proteins (antibodies) that help fight infections. CVID leaves an afflicted person open to recurrent infections in your ears, sinuses and respiratory system, and increases risk of digestive disorders, blood disorders and cancer.

CVID is believed to result from mutations in genes that are involved in the development and function of immune system cells called B cells. B cells are specialized white blood cells that help protect the body against infection. When B cells mature, they produce special proteins called antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins). These proteins attach to foreign particles, marking them for destruction. Mutations in the genes associated with CVID result in dysfunctional B cells that cannot make sufficient amounts of antibodies.

Common Variable Immunodeficiency, Mayo Clinic (Feb. 6, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/common-variable-immunodeficiency/symptoms-causes/syc-20355821;

Common Variable Immune Deficiency, Genetics Home Reference, http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/commonvariableimmunedeficiency

Dizziness

Dizziness can range from fleeting faintness to a severe balance disorder that makes normal functioning impossible. Dizziness may feel like: lightheadedness, unsteadiness, vertigo, and floating, swimming, or heavy-headedness. Dizziness can be caused from something as simple as motion sickness to an inner ear disturbance, infection, reduced blood flow, medication side effects, anxiety, or another condition.

Dizziness, Mayo Clinic (Jan. 11, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/dizziness/basics/definition/sym-20050886

Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s disease is an autoimmune condition that is common cause of hypothyroidism. In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the body mounts an immune reaction against its own thyroid gland tissue, leading to inflammation of the gland (thyroiditis).  Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is a condition caused by inflammation of the thyroid gland. It is an autoimmune disease, which means that the body inappropriately attacks the thyroid gland – as if it was foreign tissue. As hypothyroidism becomes more severe, there may be puffiness around the eyes, a slowing of the heart rate, a drop in body temperature, and heart failure.  Other symptoms and signs include, swelling of the thyroid gland (due to the inflammation), which can cause a feeling of tightness or fullness in the throat, a lump in the front of the neck from the enlarged thyroid gland called a goiter, and/or difficulty swallowing solids and/or liquids due to the enlargement of the thyroid gland with compression of the esophagus.

JC Virus

JC VIRUS known more commonly as the JC virus, is a very common virus in the United States. It’s estimated that more than three-quarters of Americans have it. The average person carrying the JC virus will never know and is unlikely to suffer any side effects as a result of its being in his or her body.  However, for a small percentage of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS), that is not the case. The JC virus can be activated when a person’s immune system is compromised because of disease or immunosuppressive medication. The virus can then be carried into the brain, where it infects the white matter of the brain and attacks the cells responsible for making myelin, the protective coating that covers and protects nerve cells. This infection is called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). (1) PML can be disabling, even fatal.

http://www.healthline.com/health/multiple-sclerosis/jc-virus-risks-for-ms-patients#1

Lupus

i.        Lupus General

Lupus, an autoimmune disease, happens when the immune system attacks its tissues, causing inflammation, swelling, pain, and damage. Many people with active lupus feel ill in general and complain of fever, weight loss, and fatigue. People with lupus also develop specific problems when the immune system attacks a particular organ or area in the body.

The following areas of the body can be affected by lupus: skin, joints, kidneys, blood, brain and spinal cord, and heart and lungs. Symptoms of lupus differ from one person to another. Some people have just a few symptoms, while others have many. Some of the more common syptoms include: achy joints, unexplained fever, swollen joints, prolonged or extreme fatigue, skin rash, ankle swelling, pain in the chest when breathing deeply, hair loss, sensitivity to the sun, seizures, mouth or nose sores, and pale or purple fingers or toes from cold or stress.

Lupus Overview, WebMD, https://www.webmd.com/lupus/arthritis-lupus#2

ii.        Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic inflammatory disease that has protean manifestations and follows a relapsing and remitting course. SLE is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ system; thus, its presentation and course are highly variable, ranging from indolent to fulminant. Patients may present with any of the following manifestations: Constitutional (fatigue, fever, arthralgia, weight changes), Musculoskeletal (arthralgia, arthropathy, myalgia, frank arthritis, avascular necrosis), Dermatologic (malar rash, photosensitivity, discoid lupus), Renal (acute or chronic renal failure, acute nephritic disease), Neuropsychiatric (seizure, psychosis), Pulmonary (pleurisy, pleural effusion, pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, interstitial lung disease), Gastrointestinal (nausea, dyspepsia, abdominal pain), Cardiac (pericarditis, myocarditis), Hematologic (cytopenias such as leukopenia, lymphopenia, anemia, or thrombocytopenia).

www.emedicine.medscape.com

Lymphedema

Lymphedema, or lymphatic obstruction, is a long-term condition where excess fluid collects in tissues causing swelling (edema). Lymphedema commonly affects one of the arms or legs. In some cases, both arms or both legs may be affected. Some patients might experience swelling in the head, genitals, or chest. Lymphedema is incurable, but with the right treatment, it can be controlled. Experts believe lymphedema is primarily caused by genetic mutation.

Lymphedema affects the lymphatic system. This system has three main functions: draining excess tissue fluid, fighting infection, absorbing fats. A disruption to the lymphatic system can undermine its ability to drain fluid properly. As a result, the excess fluid can build up in parts of the body. Lymphedema increases the risk of infection and other complications because the lymphocytes cannot reach parts of the body where swelling occurs.

Christian Nordqvist, What is Lymphedema?, Medical News Today (updated Dec. 20, 2017), https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/180919.php

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)

Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune disorder that is characterized by features commonly seen in three different connective tissue disorders: systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and polymyositis. Some affected people may also have symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Although MCTD can affect people of all ages, it appears to be most common in women under age 30. Signs and symptoms vary but may include Raynaud’s phenomenon; arthritis; heart, lung and skin abnormalities; kidney disease; muscle weakness, and dysfunction of the esophagus. The cause of MCTD is currently unknown.

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease. NIH. https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/7051/mixed-connective-tissue-disease

Multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD)

MCD is a very rare condition that affects multiple groups of lymph nodes and other organs containing lymphoid tissue, which plays a role in the body’s resistance against some forms of cancer. Lymphoid tissue is found in the lymph nodes, thymus gland, spleen, tonsils and adenoids, and bone marrow. MCD is usually referred to as a lymphoproliferative disorder, meaning there is an abnormal overgrowth of lymph nodes. The American Cancer Society describes MCD as a disease of the lymph nodes that acts similarly to lymphoma but is not actually a cancer. It explains that “people with MCD often have serious infections, fevers, weight loss, fatigue, night sweats, and nerve damage that can cause weakness and numbness…MCD can weaken the immune system severely, making it hard to fight infection. Infections in people with MCD can be very serious and may even lead to death.”

There is no standard therapy for MCD, and no single treatment works for all patients. Several types of treatment have been shown to help some patients. Bur because MCD is rare, it has been hard for doctors to compare different treatments against each other in clinical trials.

Treatment of Multicentric Castleman Disease, American Cancer Society (updated Jan.12, 2017), https://www.cancer.org/cancer/castleman-disease/treating/treating-multicentric.html

Sjogren’s Syndrome

Sjogren’s syndrome is a disorder of your immune system identified by its two most common symptoms – dry eyes and a dry mouth.  It often accompanies other immune-system disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus.  Other symptoms of Sjogren’s syndrome include joint pain, swelling and stiffness; swollen salivary glands; skin rashes or dry skin; vaginal dryness; persistent dry cough; and prolonged fatigue. In Sjogren’s syndrome, your immune system first targets the moisture-secreting glands of your eyes and mouth.  But it can also damage other parts of your body, such as your joints, thyroid, kidneys, liver, lungs, skin, and nerves.

The most common complications of Sjorden’s syndrome include dental cavities, yeast infections, and vision problems. Less common complications might affect lungs, kidneys, or liver, lymph nodes, and nerves.

Sjogren’s Syndrome, Mayo Clinic (Aug. 9, 2017), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sjogrens-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20353216

Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD)

Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a systemic autoimmune disease. This means the body’s natural immune system does not behave normally. Instead of serving to fight infections such as bacteria and viruses, the body’s own immune system attacks itself. In UCTD, autoimmunity may cause the immune system to attack specific parts of the body resulting in a variety of problems.

www.nationaljewish.org

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