i.        Cervicogenic Headaches

A cervicogenic headache starts in the cervical spine—the neck. Sometimes these headaches mimic migraine headache symptoms. Initially, pain may begin intermittently, spread to one side (unilateral) of the patient’s head, and become almost continuous. Furthermore, pain can be exacerbated by neck movement or a particular neck position (e.g., eyes focused on a computer monitor).

The cause of a cervicogenic headache is often related to excessive stress to the neck. The headache may result from cervical osteoarthritis, a damaged disc, or whiplash-type movement that irritates or compresses a cervical nerve. The neck’s bony structures (eg, facet joints) and its soft tissues (eg, muscles) can contribute to the development of a cervicogenic headache. Certain spinal nerves structures are involved in many cervicogenic headaches. Spinal nerves are signal transmitters that enable communication between the brain and the body via the spinal cord. At each level of the cervical spine is a set of spinal nerves; one on the left side and one on the right of the spine. C1, C2 and/or C3 may be involved in development of cervicogenic headaches because these nerves enable function (movement) and sensation of the head and neck. Nerve compression can cause inflammation and pain.

A cervicogenic headache presents as a steady, non-throbbing pain at the back and base of the skull, sometimes extending downward into the neck and between the shoulder blades. Pain may be felt behind the brow and forehead, even though the problem originates from the cervical spine. Pain usually begins after a sudden neck movement, such as a sneeze. Along with head and/or neck pain, symptoms may include: stiff neck, nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, sensitivity to light or sound, pain in one or both arms.

Gerard Malanga, M.D., Cervicogenic Headaches Start in the Neck, Spine Universe (updated Apr. 24, 2018),

ii.        Chronic Daily Headache Syndrome

Chronic Daily Headache Syndrome refers to headaches that are present most dates, often for most of the day. Typically, it has the following features: constant “pressing” or “bursting” sensation and pounding; occurs all over the head or sometimes in one small area; is often variable but tends to get worse as the day goes on; and conventional painkillers only “take the edge” off the pain.  As describes these headaches, “it is hard for others to understand how a headache can be so bad without any obvious cause,” and “the name often doesn’t do justice to the severity of the pain.”  Often, other symptoms accompany the headaches.  These symptoms include: fatigue, back or neck pain, poor concentration, sleep disturbance, word finding difficulty, blurred vision, nausea, avoidance of bright light, frustration and anger, low mood, lack of enjoyment, and worry.

Functional & Dissociative Neurological Symptoms: A Patient’s Guide, Neurosymptoms,

iii.        Chronic Headaches

Chronic Headaches occur 15 days or more a month, for at least three months. Chronic daily headaches are generally not caused by another condition.  The incessant nature of chronic daily headaches makes them among the most disabling headaches. Aggressive initial treatment and steady, long-term management may reduce pain and lead to fewer headaches.

Chronic Daily Headaches, Mayo Clinic (Feb. 14, 2018),

iv.        Migraines

Migraines can be described as a collection of symptoms that appear to affect not only the head but various parts of the body such as limbs, gastric tract disturbances, and in some people neurological disturbances. Migraines are headaches that can cause intense throbbing or pulsing in one area of the head and is commonly accompanies by nausea, vomiting, and extreme sensitivity to light and sound.

Migraines, Mayo Clinic (Apr. 26, 2017),

v.        Ocular Migraine Headaches

Ocular Migraine Headaches cause vision loss or blindness in one eye that lasts less than an hour. One can have them along with or after a migraine headache. Experts sometimes call them visual, retinal, ophthalmic, or monocular (meaning one eye) migraines.  This problem is rare. It affects about 1 out of every 200 people who have migraines. Some research suggests that in many cases, the symptoms are due to other problems.  Regular migraines can also cause vision problems, called an aura, which can involve flashing lights and blind spots in the vision. But these symptoms usually appear in both eyes.

Warning signs of an ocular migraine include vision problems that affect one eye, such as flashing lights, blind spots in the field of vision, or blindness. One might have them for only a few minutes or up to 30 minutes. These problems affect just one eye, which makes ocular migraines different from other types.

It’s rare, but people who have theses migraines have a higher risk of permanent vision loss in one eye.

Ocular Migraine, WebMD (Apr. 3, 2018),

vi.        Cluster Migraines

Cluster Migraines occur in cyclical patterns or clusters, which gives the condition its name. Cluster headache is one of the most painful types of headache. Bouts of frequent attacks, known as cluster periods, may last from weeks to months.

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