Chronic pain syndrome (CPS) is a common problem that presents a major challenge to healthcare providers because of its complex natural history, unclear etiology, and poor response to therapy. CPS is a constellation of syndromes and is managed best with a multidisciplinary approach, requiring good integration and knowledge of multiple organ systems. CPS can affect patients in various ways. Major effects in the patient’s life are depressed mood, poor-quality or nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, reduced activity and libido, excessive use of drugs and alcohol, dependent behavior, and disability out of proportion with impairment. CPS may lead to prolonged physical suffering, marital or family problems, loss of employment, and various adverse medical reactions from long-term therapy.
Common chronic pain complaints include headache, low back pain, cancer pain, arthritis pain, neurogenic pain, or psychogenic pain. There are often musculoskeletal disorders associated with chronic pain including osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, spondylosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Other associated complaints include Lyme disease, disc herniation, fractures of the lumbar vertebrae, poor posture, fibromyalgia, low back pain, muscle sprains and strains, pelvic floor myalgia, and several other painful conditions.
Approximately 35% of Americans have some element of chronic pain, and approximately 50 million Americans are disabled partially or totally due to chronic pain.
Singh, Manish K., M.D. Chronic Pain Syndrome. MedScape, https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/310834-overview