Tinnitus is the perception of noise or ringing in the ears. Tinnitus isn’t a condition itself – it’s a symptom of an underlying condition, such as age-related hearing loss, ear injury, or a circulatory system disorder. There are two kinds of tinnitus:
i. Subjective Tinnitus
is tinnitus only you can hear. This is the most common type of tinnitus. It can be caused by ear problems in your outer, middle, or inner ear. It also can be caused by problems with the hearing (auditory) nerves or the part of your brain that interprets nerve signals as sound (auditory pathways).
ii. Objective Tinnitus
is tinnitus your doctor can hear when he or she does an examination. This rare type of tinnitus may be caused by a blood vessel problem, a middle ear bone condition, or muscle contractions.
Tinnitus, Mayo Clinic (Mar. 3, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tinnitus/symptoms-causes/syc-20350156
Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SNHL)
Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is caused by the death of or damage to the tiny hair cells in the cochlea. This can be caused by certain diseases such as meningitis or multiple sclerosis, or due to use of certain drugs like aspirin, quinine, or streptomycin. (SNHL) has many different presentations, ranging in severity from mild to profound, including low and high pitch patterns. Genetic hearing loss may appear as an isolated finding or as part of a syndrome. About 70% of genetic hearing loss is non-syndromic, and about 30% is syndromic.
Otosclerosis is an abnormal sponge-like growth in the middle ear that causes hearing loss. This growth prevents the ear from vibrating in response to sound waves. Such vibrations are needed in order to hear. Otosclerosis may slowly get worse.
Otosclerosis. Mount Sinai. https://www.mountsinai.org/health-library/diseases-conditions/otosclerosis
Meniere’s Disease is a disorder of the inner ear that causes spontaneous episodes of vertigo — a sensation of a spinning motion — along with fluctuating hearing loss, ringing in the ear (tinnitus), and sometimes a feeling of fullness or pressure in your ear.
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder in which clusters of cysts develop primarily within your kidneys, causing your kidneys to enlarge and lose function over time. Cysts are noncancerous round sacs containing fluid. The cysts vary in size, and they can grow very large. Having many cysts or large cysts can damage your kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease also can cause cysts to develop in your liver and elsewhere in your body. The disease can cause serious complications, including high blood pressure and kidney failure.
PKD varies greatly in its severity, and some complications are preventable. Lifestyle changes and treatments might help reduce damage to your kidneys from complications.
Symptoms include high blood pressure, back or side pain, headache, a feeling of fullness in your abdomen, increased abdomen size, blood in urine, kidney stones or failure, urinary tract or kidney infections
Polycystic Kidney Disease. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/polycystic-kidney-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20352820
Chronic Kidney Disease (Chronic Renal Failure_
Chronic Kidney disease describes the gradual loss of kidney function. The kidneys filter wastes and excess fluids from the blood, which are then excreted in one’s urine. When chronic kidney disease reaches an advanced stage, dangerous levels of fluid, electrolytes and wastes can build up in the body. In the early stages of chronic kidney disease, one may have few signs or symptoms. Chronic kidney disease may not become apparent until kidney function is significantly impaired. Treatment for chronic kidney disease focuses on slowing the progression of the kidney damage, usually by controlling the underlying cause. Chronic kidney disease can progress to end-stage kidney failure, which is fatal without artificial filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant. Signs and symptoms of chronic kidney disease develop over time if kidney damage progresses slowly.
Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, sleep problems, changes in how much you urinate, decreased mental sharpness, muscle twitches and cramps, swelling of feet and ankles, persistent itching, etc.
Chronic Kidney Disease. Mayo Clinic. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-kidney-disease/symptoms-causes/syc-20354521
Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS)
Restless legs syndrome (“RLS”), also called Willis-Ekbom Disease, causes unpleasant or uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an irresistible urge to move them. Since symptoms can increase in severity during the night, it could become difficult to fall asleep or return to sleep after waking up. RLS is classified as a sleep disorder since the symptoms are triggered by resting and attempting to sleep, and as a movement disorder, since people are forced to move their legs in order to relieve symptoms. It is, however, best characterized as a neurological sensory disorder with symptoms that are produced from within the brain itself. RLS is one of several disorders that can cause exhaustion and daytime sleepiness, which can strongly affect mood, concentration, job and school performance, and personal relationships. Many people with RLS report they are often unable to concentrate, have impaired memory, or fail to accomplish daily tasks. Untreated moderate to severe RLS can lead to about a 20 percent decrease in work productivity and can contribute to depression and anxiety.
Restless Legs Syndrome Fact Sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Restless-Legs-Syndrome-Fact-Sheet
Insomnia is a persistent disorder that can make it hard to fall asleep, hard to stay asleep or both, despite the opportunity for adequate sleep. With insomnia, you usually awaken feeling unrefreshed, which takes a toll on your ability to function during the day. Insomnia can sap not only your energy level and mood but also your health, work performance and quality of life. Insomnia symptoms may include: difficulty falling asleep at night, awakening during the night, awakening too early, not feeling well rested after a night’s sleep, daytime tiredness or sleepiness, irritability, depression or anxiety, difficulty paying attention, focusing on tasks or remembering, increased errors or accidents, tension headaches, distress in the stomach and intestines (gastrointestinal tract) and ongoing worries about sleep.
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome
Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome is a disorder in which the person’s sleep-wake cycle (internal clock) is delayed by 2 or more hours. Having DSPS, can cause significant problems, as they are unable to get up for school or work. Symptoms include daytime sleepiness, inability to fall asleep at the desired time, inability to wake up at the desired time, other daytime symptoms.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially serious sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when your throat muscles intermittently relax and block your airway during sleep. The most noticeable sign of obstructive sleep apnea is snoring. Signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea include: excessive daytime sleepiness; loud snoring; observed episodes of breathing cessation during sleep; abrupt awakenings accompanied by shortness of breath; awakening with a dry mouth or sore throat; awakening with chest pain; morning headache; difficulty concentrating during the day; experiencing mood changes, such as depression or irritability; difficulty staying asleep; having high blood pressure.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Mayo Clinic (Mar. 6, 2018), https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obstructive-sleep-apnea/symptoms-causes/syc-20352090